Tabletop training exercise: Emergency Management Frameworks
Location: Southern part of North Macedonia (South-eastern district, Vardar district and Pelagonia district).
Target audience: firefighters, police officers, ambulance personnel, government employees, military personnel and private industry emergency responders from North Macedonia and members of RESISTANT Consortium (EPAYPS, IHU, SAR3.1.2 and RTD).
Reflecting the ever-changing emergency management environment and risk landscape, this scenario will be aimed at creating innovative Emergency Management Frameworks in the Southern part of North Macedonia (Southeastern district, Vardar district and Pelagonia district).
Recognizing that Emergency management is a shared responsibility across all sectors of society, the Emergency Management Frameworks for the above-mentioned areas will aim to guide and strengthen the way local governments and partners assess risks and work together to prevent/mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk to citizens of the region.
In addition, given that each local government has a responsibility for emergency management and public safety in North Macedonia, the Frameworks’ design aims to strengthen collaboration with all the parties (authorities, volunteers etc).
Tabletop exercise (TTX)
The pilot use case will be based on a specific scenario named: Emergency Management Frameworks (EMFs) and will consist of a study visit and survey and ofa six-day discussion exercise (TTX) focus on three Hazards (Technological Accident, Forest Fire and Flood) in a cross-border area aimed at common EMFs preparation and implementation.
- Study visit and survey
A working team consisting of EPAYPS, MAGMA, and IHU representatives will implement study visits to mountainous and remote areas of Kastoria, Pella, Florina, Kozani (Greece), and the Vardar, Pelagonia, and south district (North Macedonia) to implement a survey. The visit and the survey in the above-mentioned areas are quite essential because only under this way, the risk factors that create and affect natural disasters (forest fires, floods, landslides, etc), could be determined and evaluated, something that could lead to a successful and integrated EMFs implementation.
- Discussion exercise
It is expected that several training sessions will be required for all participants regarding the RESISTANT technologies. For example, first a multi-day discussion exercise (TTX) will be organized to provide an overview of emergency response activities. Within this type of training exercise, the participants from Greece and North Macedonia will discuss in a roundtable setting how they should and do respond to transportation events (test all major aspects of transportation emergency response supported by the COncORDE platform). Emphasis will be placed on participation and coordination among the participating organizations to demonstrate integrated response capabilities.
The core TTX will take part for all the participants in 1st, 3rd, and 5th day, while the 2nd, 4th, and 6th-day will participate only the RESISTANT project members to evaluate the previous date and prepare the next day.
(i) The first day of the discussion exercise will test the existing Flood Emergency Plan and Consequences Management. The basic aim of an EMF is the immediate and coordinated response of the involved Bodies at the Central, Regional and Local level:
- for the implementation of preparatory measures and civil protection actions that contribute to the preparedness of human resources and the means for dealing with emergencies and the immediate/short-term management of the consequences of the occurrence of flood phenomena.
- for the effective response to emergencies from the occurrence of floods and the immediate management of their consequences, actions aimed at protecting the life, health, and property of citizens, as well as the protection of the natural environment, wealth resources, and infrastructure of the country.
A prerequisite for achieving this goal is the synergy, cooperation, and interoperability of the involved Bodies at the Central, Regional and Local levels. Moreover, Flood Risk Management Plans must comply with the requirements of the European Flood Directive (2007/60 / EU) “On the assessment and management of flood risks”.
According to Directive 2007/60 / EU, flood is defined as the temporary subsidence of soil from water which, under normal conditions, is not covered by water. This concept includes floods from rivers, mountain streams, and ephemeral streams overflows of lakes, floods from groundwater, floods from the sea in coastal areas, as well as floods caused by gravity waves. It also includes floods from major hydraulic disasters, such as the breaking of embankments and dams. Also, the above Directive 2007/60 / EU defines the risk of flooding as the combination of the likelihood of a flood occurring and the potential adverse effects on human health, the environment, the cultural heritage, and the economic activities associated with that flood.
Land or river floods are caused by rapid rainfall and heavy storms or by the sudden melting of snow, or even a combination of the above resulting in a large increase in river runoff, as well as the failure of large hydraulic projects. Land or river floods can be further divided into slow-moving floods (field floods) and rapidly emerging floods (flash floods. Land or river floods are caused by rapid rainfall and heavy storms or by the sudden melting of snow, or even a combination of the above resulting in a large increase in river runoff, as well as the failure of large hydraulic projects. Land or river floods can be further divided into slow-moving floods (field floods) and rapidly emerging floods (flash floods).
Although the intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of rainfall is a major cause of flooding, the occurrence of a flood depends on a number of other factors that can act either as a deterrent or as a support. Such factors that can determine the occurrence or not of a flooding phenomenon are:
- the ability of the hydrographic network to effectively drain the surface runoff
- the geology, size of and geomorphology of the catchment
the saturation of the surface soil from previous rainfall
- the vegetation
- land uses
For the assessment and management of flood risks, based on which flood protection projects should be launched, it is clarified that there should be an integrated framework for their assessment in order to reduce their negative consequences.
Useful tools are the Flood Risk Management Plans which include:
- basic objectives for flood risk management
- measures and priorities necessary to achieve the above objectives
- findings of the Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment in the form of a map with potentially high flood risk zones and flood risk and flood risk maps
(ii) The third day of the discussion exercise will be tested the existing Plan for Emergency Response due to Forest Fires.
The basic aim of an EMF is the immediate and coordinated response of the involved authorities at the Central, Regional and Local levels for the suppression of forest fires and the effective response to emergencies due to forest fires. A precondition for achieving this goal is the synergy, cooperation, and interoperability of the involved Bodies at the Central, Regional and Local levels.
The scientific approach and investigation for the causes of forest fires of the Mediterranean countries, has concluded that forest fires are part of their ecology, thus their complete elimination is impossible even if there was the most perfect fire planning. The high temperatures, the prolonged drought, and the strong winds that prevail during the summer months combined with the flammability of various types of natural vegetation compose an extremely favorable environment for the occurrence of forest fires. Fires as an ecological factor of a country’s terrestrial ecosystems are a natural force that affects humans, vegetation, and animal organisms. Forest fires can cause injuries and loss of life, loss of civilian property, direct and indirect losses in the primary sector (forestry, agriculture, livestock), damage to infrastructure (electricity, telecommunications, etc.), forest recreation and tourism in general.
Fires contribute positively to the natural renewal and increase of the biodiversity of forest ecosystems, and negatively causing their destabilization and degradation to other simpler forms (shrubs, shrubs, etc.), or even their complete collapse when they are re-ignited relatively short intervals in this place. The concern and importance given to managing the problem of forest fires is therefore reasonable, as they have an adverse effect on human activities and contribute to catastrophic floods by simultaneously sweeping mountainous terrain causing gradual desertification of affected areas.
Finally, it is clarified that in the forest-city mix zone, i.e., where urban areas have great proximity or extend within forests and forest areas in general, as well as in individual buildings near or within forests and forest areas in general, the protection of buildings as well as and all types of infrastructure from an impending fire is determined primarily by their proximity to the fire. That is, how close can the flames and the produced thermal loads of a forest fire (heat propagation is done by conduction, transport, and radiation) with individual building materials of a building or an infrastructure causing their ignition.
The spread of a fire is a process that evolves and spreads in space, only when the requirements for combustion are met, i.e., when the three factors coexist: fuel, oxygen, and heat. If one of the three factors ceases to exist, the fire stops, and its development is stopped. Therefore, it is obvious that a forest fire spreads to buildings when the requirements for potentially available fuels and thermal loads are met which, in the presence of oxygen, meet the conditions for ignition and continued combustion.
Potentially available fuels that will allow a forest fire to develop into an urban environment include, in addition to plant fuels, the individual building materials of a building, including materials adjacent to the building, of non-vegetable origin, whose flammability in combined with their exposure to heat caused by an impending fire, will ensure or interrupt its continuity. Therefore, potential losses in buildings and infrastructure due to forest fires are mainly related to their distance from the flammable fire front which produces a heat flow that is sufficient or insufficient to ignite building materials or infrastructure of a building.
(iii) The fifth day of the discussion exercise will be tested the Large-Scale Technological Accident Management Plan. Via the Large-Scale Technological Accident Response Plan the immediate and coordinated response of the involved author to all levels of Administration (central, regional, local) is aimed:
- To support the work of the responsible authority in the suppression of incidents / major accidents in SEVESO facilities,
- For the effective response to emergencies and the immediate/short-term management of the consequences due to a major accident to be achieved, which are actions aimed at protection of the life, health, and property of citizens, as well as the protection of the natural environment, the wealth-producing resources and the infrastructure of the country.
A precondition for achieving this goal is the synergy, cooperation, and interoperability of the involved authorities at all levels of Management. Objectives of a Successful Plan will be aimed:
- To define the roles and responsibilities of all involved Bodies at each level of Administration (central, regional, local) in all phases of mobilization of the Civil Protection system,
- To coordinate the activities of all involved civil protection bodies based on their institutional framework, in order to support the work of suppression of incidents / major accidents which is the responsibility of the Fire Brigade,
- To coordinate the activities of all involved civil protection bodies, based on their institutional framework, to deal with emergencies and the immediate/short-term management of consequences due to a Large-Scale Technological Accident, with the ultimate goal of restoring the daily operation of areas that have be in a state of emergency because of this.
- To provide guidelines for the preparation of the Special Plans for the Response of Large-Scale Technological Accidents of the higher-level facilities by the Regions.
This type of plan is activated and implemented whenever an unexpected event of leakage, fire, or explosion occurs within the SEVESO installation, which is due to accidental factors during the operation of the installation and not within its conventional operation, as the latter can develop into a major accident and cause serious effects inside and outside the installation.
In each day that take part the discussion exercise, we will follow the procedures below:
- Performance Objectives
- Implement the incident command system.
- COncORDE emergency management platform will be used for incident management during the multi-day discussion exercise (TTX)
- Successfully resolve problems that arise while managing an incident related to 3 hazards.
- Simulate the allocation of emergency response resources.
- Demonstrate all the functions for simulated sub incident.
- Report a summary of actions taken.
- Condition: Participants will respond to a simulated scenario at each of the above hazards conducted as a discussion exercise in a classroom setting.
- Standard: Participants will demonstrate the tasks in accordance with the appropriate performance checklists and with the written portion of the appropriate lessons.
- Divide into 4-6 groups.
- Each group given the same scenario.
- Function as an incident management team
- Create and implement the incident management system.
- Each member has equal say.
- Share duties; do NOT delegate.
- Develop a written plan.
- Document all proceedings.
- Report to the class.
- Handouts and Materials
- Incident Command Checklist
- Resource Response List
- Diagram of Incident Area
- Close-up Diagram of Incident Area
- Incident Command Information Sheet
- Related to hazard Forms.
- White paper
- Colored markers